Friday, August 23, 2019
Wild Planet - Case Study Example As the report highlightsÃ family and important groups affect the perception, wants and basic value of kids, such that they keep the practices of the groups in which they were brought up in. Wild Planet marketers evaluate cultural shifts in regard to demand for toys in a bid to remain competitive in the market. This helps in determining which cultural setups demand toys and which do not, so that toys are not offered to cultures that do not need them.From the study it is clear thatÃ high quality and nonviolent toys are produced and marketed by the company, responding to the current need for creativity and innovativeness. In so doing, social classes have to be considered and well incorporated in product development so that the demand is fully met. These social trends are fundamental in determining consumer behavior. There are those consumers that buy products because they are expensive, while others go for the cheaper products. Social determinants like income, education and wealth i nfluence purchase processes. Wild planet needs to identify the characteristics of the various markets it serves in marketing the toys and selling positive play experiences.Ã Individual buyers consider their personality in making purchase decisions. The age and life of a buyer influences that personÃ¢â¬â¢s buying behavior. Standard of life is also significant when it comes to purchase decisions.Ã Personalities that attach toys and related products to their lives are likely to buy more than those who do not.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Class Test on Micro Economics Essay i) All questions in this section are compulsory ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each iii) Answers for very short answer questions carrying 1 mark must be answered in ONE sentence each iv) Answers for short answer questions carrying 3 marks each should not normally exceed 60 words v) Answers for short answer questions carrying 4 marks each should normally not exceed 70 words vi) Answers for long answer questions carrying 6 marks each should not normally exceed 100 words each. vii) Answers should be brief and to the point Ã¢â¬â The above word limits should be adhered to as far as possible. 1. Name the characteristic which make monopolistic competition different from perfect competition 2. Why is demand for water inelastic? 3. State one feature of oligopoly 4. In which market form is the demand perfectly inelastic? 5. Distinguish between increase in demand and increase in quantity demanded 6. Goods X and Y are substitutes. Explain the effect of a fall in price of Y on the demand for X. 7. At a price of Rs. 5 per unit of a commodity A, total revenue is Rs 800. When its price rises by 20%, total revenue increases by Rs. 400. Calculate its rice elasticity of demand 8. Explain the implication of freedom to entry and exit of firms under perfect competition 9. Given below is the cost schedule of a firm. Its average fixed cost is Rs 20 When it is producing 3 units. |Output |1 |2 |3 | |Average Variable cost (Rs.) |30 |28 |32 | Calculate its marginal cost and average total cost at each given level of output. 10 Explain the features of Ã¢â¬Å"What to produceÃ¢â¬ OR Explain any two main features of centrally planned economy. 12. When the price of a commodity falls by Rs. 2 per unit, its quantity demanded increases by 10 units. Its price elasticity is (-)1. Calculate its quantity demanded on its equilibrium price. 13. Explain the effect of increase in income of buyers of a normal commodity on its equilibrium price. 14. State whether the following statements are true or false: Give reasons for your answer (a) When total revenue is constant, average revenue will be constant. (b) Average variable cost can fall even when marginal product is rising (c) When marginal product falls, average product will also fall. 15. Explain the law of variable proportions with the help of total and marginal product curves.  16 Explain producers equilibrium with the help of a marginal cost and marginal revenue schedule 
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Boys donÃ¢â¬â¢t play with dollsÃ¢â¬â¢ Essay The Vietnam War is still the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ most famous (or infamous) war even if new conflicts have risen over the years. The numerous films made about the Vietnam War are a testament to its fame (or infamy). This paper would be a review of two internet sites reviewing the cause of conflict, social stratification, type of conflict, and how the war ended. According to vietnampix. com the war on Vietnam started because of the splitting of the country. The French used to dominate Vietnam but when they were defeated, the country was divided into two. Sometime between 1955 and 1960, the communist occupied North Vietnam tried to invade the Democratic South. Aided by two other communist countries China and Russia, the North was determined to conquer the whole country. Fearing the spread of communism, the US had to interfere. (The Vietnam War Background). Social Stratification had a big role in the war; in fact, it is part of the cause. Communism is based on a form of society where everybody else is equal, except for the officials. Democracy on the other hand believes in open opportunities for all. Not being able to agree on this divided the country which would eventually lead to the Vietnam War. The type of conflict of the Vietnam War is a mixture of different types. It was first a revolution against France which has ruled the country for a long time. And then it became a Civil War as the country was divided into two halvesÃ¢â¬âthe communist North and the democratic South led by Ngo Dinh Diem. (Vietnam. vassar. edu). It quickly became a feud of all sorts when America decided to take part in the war in order to stop the spread of communism in the world. On paper, the conflict was ended through the Paris Peace Agreement in January 1973 but hostilities between opposing forces were still happening. (Vietnam. vassar. edu). The result of the conflict were, a rare US loss, millions of lives gone, and a country devastated. References Vietnampix. com (n. d). The Vietnam War: Background. Retrieved June 25, 2009. from: http://www. vietnampix. com/intro. htm Vassar College (n. d). The Wars of Vietnam. Retrieved June 25, 2009. from: http://vietnam. vassar. edu/overview. html
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Ideological Messages Behind Barbara Krugers Work Art Essay Even though some may challenge the ideological messages behind Barbara Krugers work in the 1980s, it brought about a change in society. She criticizes everything that is wrong with the stereotypical society using a conceptual approach to her artwork. Kruger challenges gender, sex, religion, consumerism, greed, power and her work becomes fueled by the mass media. Kruger was born in 1945 in Newark, New Jersey. In 1964, she studied at the School of Visual Arts at Syracuse University. After a year at Syracuse, she went to the Parsons School of Design in New York and studied graphic design. After a year at Parsons, she received an entry level position at Mademoiselle Magazine in New York. She was soon promoted to head designer at the magazine. By working for a magazine, she was able see how words and photos can have a certain power to consumers. She became familiarized with these concepts of graphic design and started applying them to her artwork. During the late 1970s she started off using her own photography as the medium for her work as a female artist. In the 1980s she developed a different approach to her work by integrating images and text. According to Steven Heller, Krugers method was influenced by reductive Modernist graphic design, the kind that began somewhat idealistically but has dominated corporate identity during the postwar years, as well as the so-called Big Idea or Creative Revolution advertising style of the sixties, known for clever slogans and ironic single images (Heller 112). In other words, Krugers artwork can grab your attention just as easily as an advertisement driven by Krugers artwork is considered postmodern. Postmodernism is an art movement that came about after modernism during the late 20th century. For Kruger, as well as many contemporary theorists, postmodernism is not a style of succeeding the dissolution of modernism but rather a historical condition, marked by new philosophical relations. It signals a rupture with the notion of sovereignty and individuality inherited from the Enlightenment (Linker 12). Postmodernism shaped Krugers work by her use of space, text and photos she uses from other sources of the media which shows her individually as a female artist. Her use of words and pictures convey a deeper meaning. Her artwork shows the viewer how fast people label others in society. The work shows how another persons view can impact society as a whole by letting the hierarchy in society manifest our culture. Barbara went beyond this to get a reaction from society by raising this social awareness in her art. Through her works she expresses gender, sexuality and other stereotypical issues that are developed within a mainstream culture. Some may argue that her work disrupts the space or environment in which it is displayed. In the article Jam Life into Death, Ana Balona de Olivera talks about how Kruger uses the explicit artistic violence of disruption in order to raise awareness of hidden social violence (Balona de Olivera 752). I do not agree that her artwork is violent or disruptive in relation to the space itself. In our vast world we see large advertised displays all around us. There is more violence viewed on television and in the news than viewed in a public setting. I believe her work is more about the message than the actual disruption of the space it occupies. She makes us stop and wonder what we are looking at and relays a message that is not spoon fed to us. When viewing her work, we are challenged to see the actual message behind the work. She tries to communicate messages that she feels are beneficial to society or ironic in nature. The images she chooses may or may not have anything to do with the text on top of the images. Kruger says, As long as pictures remain powerful, living conventions within culture, Ill continue to use them and turn them around (Squiers 148). Kruger knew that by using images in the mass media that they would capture the attention of the public eye. People associate certain images with certain meanings. To take these images out of context and place them with a different narrative can make people wonder if there is a true meaning behind an image or is it just what the media/society perceives it to be. Kruger uses black and white images that she has come across in magazines, advertisements and other media. She uses these images that arent her own but started to weave them with text to make them her own, which is called appropriation. Krugers work will be necessary to a visual representation for the 1980s, her influence now permeates all the forms of media culture that she appropriated (Garrard 263). Her juxtaposed images shaped how people view society. In Michael Foucaults thesis What is an Author A Lecture; he states, The modes of circulation, valorization, attribution and appropriation of discourses vary with each culture and are modified within each (Foucault 952). Krugers works are a reflection of corporate consumerism and are viewed daily by many people. As a consumer, it is evident that we are buying into corporate America and there is no sign telling us it happens all the time. Sometimes images we see stay with us and we can recognize them later in life. Through repetition and recognition of certaim images we see how they can that impact our social culture. Other images we see may have little or not impact on our lives. Working as a graphic designer, Kruger was aware of how certain images sell to a grand audience. In graphic design, the font you use depends on the message you are trying to convey in the advertisement. The font that Barbara uses is called Future Bold Italic. I appreciate the fact that Kruger uses the same font in every piece so the viewer cant convey a certain feeling or mood attributed with it, she lets the words do the talking. Even though her images are collaged, they possess a very graphic quality to them. Kruger uses the color red behind the text to invoke a range of feelings by the viewer. The color red can make people feel angry, loving, warm or powerful. Her color choices are something you would see in a newspaper or for marketing a brand like Coca-Cola during the 1980s. Again, her graphic design abilities came into play. By using these colors she could gravitate peoples attention to her work. These colors seem to resemble Russian constructivism but I do not think she was influenced by the art produced during that time. Kruger chooses larger than life public displays. She uses billboards, bus stops, posters and other remote areas. She also incorporates her work inside local settings. Her work is viewed in galleries, museums, and storefronts. Her artwork has also appeared in Rage Against the Machine videos and album covers. She is very flexible in the size of her work. She has worked as large as a 14 x 48 foot billboard or as small as a print on a coffee cup. She knows that if she displays these messages on a large scale that she could sell it on a smaller scale to consumers. Krugers artwork is sold as a commodity on T-shirts, postcards, bags and other paraphernalia. What better way to convey a message such as Dont be a Jerk then on your coffee cup. Kruger sets a discourse for other feminine artwork done in the 1970s. Kruger, like others, has voiced her concern not to illustrate theory; nevertheless, crucial notions that circulated within theory about the relations among sexuality, meaning and language found their way into these artists works (Linker 60). Krugers work represents typical feminine stereotypes as well as other stereotypical issues that existed during the 1980s. During the 1980s men were the ones fighting in the war in Iraq, while the women tended to the home. Though women had more rights than ever before in history, men and women still played independent roles in society. It wasnt until the 1990s that women began moving up the corporate ladder into a higher social status. Krugers image Untitled (Your body is a battleground) 1989 speaks for womens rights (figure 1). It is a photographic silkscreen on vinyl and is approximately 112112 inches. It is a vintage photograph of a woman who looks like a stereotypical housewife. The words Your body is a battleground lay across the image inside a red box. The woman in the photograph has a remarkably intent gaze. She also has subtle features and her face is split symmetrically revealing two different looking images. One side of her face is black and white where you are able to recognize her visual features. The other side of her face is reversed black and white. The features become mechanical and not easily recognizable. We are looking at the same women with two extremely different sides to her. It looks like she has a good side and bad side to her. One can note, on the other hand, the ideology of the spectacle as authorized by the dominant order, in which one part of society represents itself to the other, reinf orcing domination (Linker 61). The text relates to the struggles women have had about how they are portrayed in the media. This photo relates to how women may not feel human all the time in a male-dominated society. During the 1980s women were fighting for their own reproductive rights. They were preserving the womans right of choice to have an abortion against the pro-life movement. Kruger allowed a campaign by the Pro-Choice Public Education Project to adopt her style in a 1998 ad for abortion rights (Dieckmann 172). Kruger took this image to an even larger display for the art world. This image gained public awareness by letting women see that they should take control of their own bodies during this time in history (figure 2). This poster uses Krugers work and places more white text across red strips giving event information and campaigning for womens rights. At the bottom is a black box with white text discussing the Roe v.s. Wade verdict on abortion. By agreeing to let herself be copied for a cause, Kruger displayed yet another of her facets- call it Barbara Kruger, Anti-Author (Dieckmann 172). In other words Kruger has set out to take authorship away from this piece by letting her work spea k for a cause. The image was speaking for women and womens rights. The essay What is an Author A Lecture by Michael Foucault calls for the death of the author. He states, The author is the principle thrift in the proliferation of meaning; We must reverse the traditional idea of the author (Foucault 952). It is almost as if she let society appropriate her own work just as she was borrowing work from other media sources. Another example of Krugers work is Untitled, made in 1987 (figure 2). The image was placed on a billboard for the University of Art MATRIX program. It shows a girl impressively admiring a boy who is flexing his arm. The text reads We dont need another hero near the bottom of the piece. The word We suggests women. The text is white in a red strip extending all the way across the image. The photograph is also outlined in red. The text in this image may be in reference to a song written by Tina Turner in the late 1980s. The lyrics talk about children that are living in fear because they realize there is no such thing as a hero that will come and save them. The black and white photograph is reminiscent of Dick and Jane artwork done in the 1950s. Dick and Jane images are easily recognizable and are sold as a commodity; which may be why she chose to use this image. Kruger may also be trying to raise the roles of gender at an extremely young age. We shouldnt think of a boy being able to protect a girl at such a young age. Its enough to say when we are born, our roles in society are predetermined. As girls, we play with Barbie Dolls and we grew up being taught how to be gentle and loving as she is. Boys are taught to be aggressive and tough as their war figures and plastic weapons are made for fighting. Today Krugers work graces the cover of a consumer driven male-society. Although W magazine showcased many artist, Krugers work Untitled 2010 appeared on the cover of W magazine (figure 3). Krugers work included Kim Kardashians naked body with text reading Its all about you, I mean me, I mean you placed across parts of her body. The text across the image is broken into three sections: One section lays across her breast saying, Its all about me. This text implies that she is a reality superstar and is the perfect example of beauty. The second text lays across her midsection stating, I mean you. The text implies that women are trying to become this perfect women that they may see in a magazine. The third text is laying across her genital area and states, I mean me. The text implies that it was never about you it was all about her. Using Krugers powerful words leads us to obtain more information about why Kim Kardashian was used on the cover. Kruger has not talked about the work in detail or her intent. Kim Kardashian is using her sexuality to gain notoriety in the public eye. Barbara Krugers older work would fight against any imagery like this. Indeed, Krugers art is invariably directed at the manner in which visual mastery becomes aligned with difference or, more pointedly, at the way in which representations position women as objects of the male gaze (Linker 61). I believe Kruger is trying to deal with the issue of womens sexuality. I think she is realizing that sex sells in this new generation. Kruger challenges how celebrities are portrayed by the media though she may be condemned for doing so. Kruger is teasing the male audience by not putting her whole body on display. The play on words cover up any sexual connotations. Kim Kardashians body appears to be made plastic or airbrushed but none the less perfect. In the essay From Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema Laura Mulvey states, Women, then, stands in patriarchal culture as a signifier for the male other, bound by a symbolic order in which man can live out his fantasies through linguistic command by imposing them on women still tied to her place as bearer of meaning, not maker of meaning (Mulvey 983). This is true in that past artwork depicted women as sensual objects and their bodies were put on display for the male viewer. A major source of pleasure for the viewer is scopophilia. Mulvey states, The cinema offers a number of possible pleasures: one is scopophilia [Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦] which is also described by Freud, in Mulveys article as Taking people as objects, subjecting them to a controlling and curious gaze.(Mulvey 984). I think women are portrayed in the media as objects of attraction. If you look at the front cover of a magazine it always has a women staring at the viewer. Also there is some sexual aspect of her body becomes a secondary focal point. Though some of these magazines may be reproduced for women, men also get a visual pleasure from looking at them. As a woman, if I were to use this image and put it on my fridge to look at everyday, I would have to admit that I could never be this person. But many women believe that this is reality because they believe in order to gain a mans attention your body has to look like a women in a magazine. Kim Kardashians body image is a false reality fueled by the mass media. In conclusion, Krugers work is similarly fueled by the mass media. Using re-occurring ideological messages to communicate her ideas the themes of gender, sex, consumerism, greed and power, she criticizes everything that she feels is wrong with the society we live in and uses larger than life images to get her message across to mass populations.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Besides for being an entertaining play, Oedipus Rex, is also an incredibly in-depth and insightful piece of literature. Sophocles does an outstanding job of bringing the play to another level, making the reader delve deep into the. Sophocles uses literary devices such as irony and tone to enhance the story. Tone and irony are constant throughout the play, and used well to develop the characters. From the beginning we know a lot about Oedipus, mostly from previous knowledge in previous plays. It is known that he was a hero and the leader of many people. In this novel it is clear from an early point that the city is once again in trouble and OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢s help is again required. At first he seems very honest and sincere about helping his people but as time goes on we see a different side of Oedipus. When Teiresias first meets Oedipus is a perfect example. At the beginning of their encounter Oedipus seems to be more concerned with his people and fixing the plague, but as soon as Teiresias brings up the notion that Oedipus has anything to do with it he immediately becomes very defensive and aggravated. We quickly learn that Oedipus is more concerned with himself than with his people. After the discussion with Teiresias, Oedipus plays the murder off on his friend, Creon. This is another example of Oedipus being more concerned with himself than the people around him. Oedipus of ten questions his past or other people about his past. He is unsure about himself and often seems troubled and short tempered. Tone is a huge part of the play and especially Oedipus. Another literary device used in the play is Irony. In Oedipus Rex, dramatic irony is often present in OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢ long speeches. Oedipus constantly sees things incorrectly, and is in denial that he has, in fact, killed his father and married his mother. This is first apparent when he demands the death of the man who killed Laius. Oedipus calls the man who did this an evil murder. Oedipus assumes that, as he became a citizen of Thebes after the murder, though he did kill someone, he is ruled out Laius. In another speech, Oedipus accuses Creon of setting him up in order to get the throne, by framing him as the murderer. At this point, Oedipus proves that he has no feelings for his friends and it shows his true colors.
Throughout the history of the country, America has been considered a fairly racist union. From the workplaces to the society, as an Asian, I felt there's a strong barrier between white and black people, although I felt a little bit of racial among us. In this essay, I will talk about the major racial issue of this country through out my experiences. Undoubtedly the greatest injustice in the United States to this day is the white's treatment of African-Americans, specifically slavery. The vast majority of non-black people of that time believed that blacks were not equal to other races. White Americans of the slavery period specifically held this view. It was nearly impossible for a black to live free in America, and it was even more difficult for a black to find a job. As time passed, however, many people began to change their views on race relations in America. After slavery was abolished, fewer and fewer people believed that they were supreme over the African-American race. Not only were blacks free, they were becoming accepted as people in our society. They were even becoming accepted in the workplace. Many employers were no longer bothered by giving a job to an African-American. America seemed to finally be turning around for the better. After all, African-Americans only asked for equality, and they were getting closer and closer to that goal with each passing day. Suddenly, however, some people began to lose sight of the mission they set out to accomplish. Instead of just trying to make America equal, they felt that they should attempt to make up for the times when it was not. Many places in society, such as the workplace, the court system, and the entertainment industry, seem to have shifted to being easier for blacks ... ...slators and citizens alike must keep in mind our nation?s goal of racial equality, and not lose sight of that goal by making and following foolish laws. Certainly African-Americans have suffered greatly in the past, however, we must not continue to make things easier for blacks at the expense of whites today. In conclusion, despite the popular belief that blacks deserve reparations for their past treatment, our country cannot and should not afford them special treatment on account of the past. Now is a new era of life in the United States, and a new chance to fix the mistakes we have made in the past. We must not make these same mistakes twice, as that would be devastating to the future of our country. The greatest nation of the future will be the fairest nation, and if the United States is to maintain its greatness, then it must first achieve racial equality.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
In the beginning of the play, Caliban and Prospero had a relationship similar to that of a father and son. Prospero took care of Caliban, and taught him how to speak. Caliban too, taught Prospero how to live on the island by showing him the places to get food. I feel that in the beginning, Caliban was naÃ ¯ve and innocent, with no ill intent. He truly felt that Prospero was his father, or a king, and in fact was a king that he loved. For instance, Caliban in Act 1, Scene 2 states Ã¢â¬Å"And then I loved thee.Ã¢â¬ Their relationship was one of love, and the want to help each other. After Caliban attempted to rape Miranda, CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s and ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship changed drastically. Prospero became extremely hostile to Caliban, and insulted Caliban in their first conversation in the book in Act 1, Scene 2, Ã¢â¬Å"Thou poisonous slave, got by the devil himself. Upon thy wicked dam, come forth!Ã¢â¬ It is easily seen how their relationship has changed severely since then. Caliban, too, hurled curses at Prospero: As wicked dew as e'er my mother brushed With ravenÃ¢â¬â¢s feather from unwholesome fen Drop on you both! A southwest blow on ye And blister you all o'er! Certainly, this would not have been the way they would have talked to each other if they had still loved each other. Their relationship was now one of loathe and revolt. Caliban became resentful and grouchy because of ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection of him after what he had done. However, Caliban, being a savage, was probably just heeding natureÃ¢â¬â¢s calls. After all, all of nature has a need to procreate, and Caliban was just following his instincts. Furthermore, Miranda was the only girl on the island who was of the right age to procreate, so thus CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were valid, to him at least. In addition, Calib... ...nces whereby CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s actions affected his relationships with others, it was not due to sudden changes in character, but rather, due to the way he was brought up, and the impact of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions on him which led to the final blow. Also, CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s and ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship changed in various ways throughout The Tempest, where at a point it was a relationship of love, and at another time it was one of hatred. However, looking at the text as a whole, the overarching relationship the both had was still one of a master and slave. Even though they had a loving relationship in the beginning of the story, theirs was still one of superiority and inferiority. At the end of the play, their relationship returned to what it was initially. Hence, their relationship did not actually change throughout, but what changed was the way they spoke to each other throughout the play.